Point Code: IAB67
par Jitendra Nath BanerjeaHardcover (Édition: 1986)
Taille: 6.5" x 10.0"
Pages: 692 (49 b&w ills. 3rd revised and enlarged edition.)
Prix: $60.00 Livraison Gratuite - 4 to 6 days
From the Jacket
Hindu Iconography reflects fully the Hindu mind in its religious and social aspects. Its study enables one to understand the mysterious India in the varied facets of her life and culture. Iconography means not merely the mechanical description and identification of an image, but also a study of the various processes, mental and social, which lead to the growth of a cult or of a particular iconic type. The present book by a reputed Indian specialists view the subject of the Hindu Iconography from the evolutionary standpoint and can claim to be a pioneer and authoritative work in this respect. The author has carefully marshaled all kinds of data - literary, epigraphic, numismatic, glyptic and sculptural - and presents his materials and different problems in a systematic manner so as to build up a logical and coherent picture of Hindu Iconography in its wide and varied scope. A special feature of the book lies in a discussion of early iconographic types even before the systematisation of this branch of knowledge in the ancient Hindu texts. First published in 1941, the present edition has been completely revised and enlarged so as to serve as the most authoritative guide and reference work on this interesting subject.
About the Author
Dr. Jitendra Nath Banerjea was an eminent historian and Indologist. After his M.A. in 1918, he was appointed as an assistant to Carmichael Professor Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar. In 1952, he was promoted to the chair of the Carmichael Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History, Calcutta University and continued on this post till his retirement in 1959. His magnum opus in his thesis The Development of Hindu Iconography. He was a fellow of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta and a correspondent for life of the Archaeological Department of the Government of India, a corresponding member from India of the Commission Internationale pour une Histoire du Development Scientifique et Cultural de l'Humanite, UNESCO and a charter member of the International University Foundation, New York. He was a prolific writer on Indian history, art, iconography and numismatics and was a contributor to the different volumes of Comprehensive History of India.
Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition List of Abbreviations List of Illustrations Chapter I: Study of Hindu Iconography Iconography, the nature of the subject Its intimate association with religion Both rivalry and good feeling between different sects emphasized by the study of this subject Its study, and aid for the study of the art history of India Also an aid for that of political or general history of India Materials for the study of iconography: (a) Monumental, and archaeological (b) Literary: of a general character Of a technical character, consisting of iconographic and iconometric texts Texts attributed to mythical Rsis and Devas Manasara account of the origin of the different kinds of artists Vastusastra and its 18 expounders Brhatsamhita and Nagnajit Such other works and anthologies Their original sources, Similar texts in astronomical works and Nitisastras Anthologies Dhyana and pranama-mantras of divinities, aids to iconographic studies, Mode of determining dates of iconographic texts Universal or regional character of the texts Correlation between the texts and extant images, Comparative paucity of ancient Brahmanical images, reasons for it Uncommon names of images given in their pedestal inscriptions Chapter II: The Antiquity of Image - Worship in India The term 'icon' ('image') - its significance Secular images Terms indicative of symbols ' in early texts Panini on worship of images; Cult objects found in the early Indus Valley sites The per Vedic settlers there probably worshippers of images Did the Vedic Indians worship images? - The question differently answered by different groups of Vedic scholars Views of Max Muller, Wilson and Macdonell Those of Bollensen and Venkateswara - passages quoted by them from the Rgveda in support of their views that the Vedic Indians did not worship images Nature of the religion in vogue among the higher section of the early Indo -Aryans, The degree of anthropomorphism assigned to the Vedic deities not conducive to image worship Description of the Vedic gods helped to formulate the concrete concepts of many of the cult gods of later times Critical study of the Vedic passages quoted by Bollensen and Venkateswara in support of their views Views of Bloomfield, R. P. Chanda, Macdonell and others True explanation of the Rgveda verse, About some sensible representations of Indra The nature of the symbols used in some sacrifices Certain Rgvedic passages indicative of the existence of image worship among the earlier settlers of India: Significance of the terms 'Sisnadeva' and 'Muradeva' Gradual changes introduced in the Vedic religion The latest sections of the Vedic literature, the Khilas (supplements) to the earlier authoritative Brahmanas and Aranyakas, and the Grhyasutras, presuppose the partial recognition of the practice of image worship by the higher section of the Indo-Aryans Chapter III: The Origin and Development of Image - Worship in India Close cultural contact between the Indo-Aryans and the previous settlers of India responsible for the introduction of changes in the socio religious outlook of the former Emergence of Bhakti Growth of cult religions, cults not centering round hero-gods and mythological deities of a different character (evidence of the Niddesa passage) Images necessary for the ritualistic worship of the followers of the cults Dhyana yoga as described in the Mahabharata and a few late Upanisads The Pancaratra viewpoint about the divine images The symbolism behind the images Aniconic forms of cult deities Trees also used as divine symbols Prevailed by various types of literary data: Panini's Sutras - as commented on by Patanjali Arthasastra and Manusamhita passages, Narada Pancaratra extracts Mahabharata passages Quintus Curtius's evidence Archaeological data in support of the wide prevalence of the practice: Asoka's Fourth Rock Edict Nagari inscription Besnagar inscriptions Mora (Mathura) well inscription Other Mathura inscriptions Some pre Christian cult images: Loganipur (Patna) Jina image Patna gold plaque of Hara Parvati (suspect) Animal figures in the capitals of Asoka pillars, deities in their theriomorphically forms (?) Maurya or Sunga free standing sculptures not royal statues, but Yaksa images Manibhadra Yaksa image found at Pawaya Other Yaksa and Yaksini figures from Northern India Yaksas, Yaksinis and Devatas in Bharhut rail-pillars Naga figures in the Mathura Museum Significance of the literary and archaeological data collected above Dhvajas or votive columns, -practice of erecting them in honour of various cult -deities: Garudadhvaja Taladhvaja and Makaradhvaja The Besnagar banyan capital, not Kalpa vrksa as suggested by Cunningham, but it is associated with Sri-Lakshmi, the presiding deity of Pasmini Vidya The Lala Bhagat sculptures (a red sandstone cock capital and a section of pillar), their true significance Chapter IV: Brahmanical Divinities and their Emblems on Early Indian Coins Aniconism of a large section of the Indians suggested by the earliest coins of the country Iconism on ancient Indian coins: Gaja - Lakshmi on coins Buddha on Indian coins Siva in his theriomorphic form Siva in his phallic form on the indigenous coins of India Other emblems of Siva on the indigenous and foreign coins of India Siva in human form: on Ujjayini coins On those of the Audumbara chief Dharaghosha On Kuninda coins On some coins of Gondophares On some square copper coins of Maues, as well as on a seal of Sivaraksita Probable appearance of Siva on the Sirkap seal of Visvamitra Iconography of Siva on Kushan money: on Wema Kadphises's coins On the coins of Kanishka and Huvishka Composite (? Haryardha) form of Siva on a coin of Huvishka Composite form of Mihira, Siva and Visnu on the nicolo seal of Hephtalite Huna chief Siva as 'Ganesa' on a copper coin of Huvishka Siva's consort Uma on Huvishka's coins Siva on Vasudeva's coins Probable reference to a Saiva shrine in an early Kharoshthi inscription Vasudeva Visnu on a coin of the Pancala Mitra chief Visnumitra Visnu on a coin of Huvushka doubtful Some Vaisnava emblems on early indigenous coins: Fanpalm capitals on some Tacila and other coins Sudarsanacakra on the coins of the Vrsni Rajanya gana On the coins of Virayasas, the Kauluta chief, and on those of Acyuta Goddesses on early Indian coins: Bhadra, probably same as Laksmi or Durga, on coins of the Pancala Mitra chief Bhadraghosha Laksmi in her human, as well as animal, form on the coins of the Kunindas Durga Simhavahini on some coins of Azes On some gold coins of the Guptas Nana (Nanaia) and Uma on Huvishka's coins The sidereal goddess Phalguni on the coins of the Pancala Mitra chief Phalgunimitra, doubtful Symbols of Surya on coins: on punch marked coins and on some coins of Eran On some copper coins of Kada On the money of Suryamitra and Bhanumitra in the Pancala Mihira series Surya in human form: As Helios, Mihira, etc. on the coins of some early foreign rulers of India, the prototypes of some variety of the Indian Surya images, - Helios - Mithra on some coins of Plato Sun god on a coin of Philoxenus Helios - Mihira on the coins of Kanishka and Huvishka Skanda Karttikeya on coins: An emblem of this god on some Ayodhya coins Brahmanya-deva (Srbrahmanya, another name of Karttikeya) on the coins of the Yaudheyas The Yaudheyas and others dedicating their states to the god Evidence of the Mahabharata and the Mahamayuri about the country or the capital of the Yaudheyas, Figures of Skanda - Kumara, Visakha and Mahasena on some coins of Huvishka Indra and Agni on coins: Indra on the coins of the Pancala Mitra chief, Indramitra Agni on those of Agnimitra, the Pancala Mitra chief Zeus - Indra on some Indo-Greek coins Yaksas and Yaksinis on coins Resume of the foregoing survey of the early Indian coin - devices Character of the art manifest in the treatment of the coin figures Chapter V: Deities and their Emblems on Early Indian Seals Nature of evidence supplied by the ancient Indian seals about iconism The Indus Valley sealings: Mohenjo-daro seals with the figure of proto-Siva A god in a Yoga posture on two Mohenjo-daro seals Composite figures of cult objects on seals Mythological scenes illustrated on them Mother-goddess on the seals Ring stones and phalli found in Indus Valley sites Ring stones and stone discs: found at Taxila, Kosam and Rajghat Found at Murtaziganj (Patna) Tree worship by the early Indus Valley people, General observations on the nature of their religious beliefs and practices Terracotta seals found at Basarh, Bhita. Rajghat and Nalanda Siva and his emblems on Gupta seals; - at Basarh At Bhita Goddess figures on the Nalanda seals of the late Gupta and early mediaeval period Ganesa Siva and other deities on the Nalanda seals Siva and other emblems on Gupta and pre-Gupta seals found at Rajghat Visnu and his emblems on seals - found at Basarh At Bhita At Rajghat Laksmi on Basarh seals On Bhita seals Sarasvati and Durga on Bhita seals Goddess figures on Rajghat seals Surya and fire altar on a Basarh seal On a Bhita seal Skanda and Dhanada on Bhita, Rajghat and Basarh sealings Resume Chapter VI: Icono-plastic Art in India - Factors contributing to its Development Comparative paucity of extant images of the pre-Christian and early post -Christian periods, explained by the ancient practice of using perishable materials like wood, clay, etc. in image-making Chapter 58 (Vanasampravesadhyaya) of the Brhat-samhita on the use of wood for this purpose Evidence of such texts as the Bhavisya-, Visnudhar-mottara-, and Matsya -Puranas, and other texts on the same topic Classifications of images; on the basis of materials (seven different kinds) out of which they were made, in texts like the Matsya-purana, Hayasirsa Pancaratra, Sukranitisara, Samara-ngava-Sutradhara and others Stone, though used for this purpose from an early date, much less frequent in use than wood and clay Metal images, and textual description of metal-casters' art Textual details about selection of stone for making images Pictorial representations of divinities Dhulicitra Ratnaja class of images Terracotta images, another variety of the pakaja type Images made of kadi-sarkara (a compound material) and danta (ivory) Factors contributing to the development of icono-plastic art in India: (1) Wide prevalence of sectarianism in India (2) Phenomenal increase in the number of divinities comprising the Brahmanical pantheon (3) Contact of India with the foreigners, especially with the Greeks (4) The evolution of Tantras and the gradual canonization of the modes for icon-making (5) The systematic patronage of the art by the ruling powers and influential clericals Chapter VII: Iconographic Terminology Technical terms in the study of Indian Iconography: Various handposes - hastas and mudras Different types of mudras: Vaidic Tantric The appearance of some of the latter in the Indus Valley objects In some sculptures of the per-Christian period Some hastas and their early representations Bhumisparsa - and dharmacakra-mudras in early Buddhist art (the ideology behind the latter) Some complex handposes adopted by ritualists, their significance There principal attitudes in which Visnu images are shown: sthanaka, asana and sayana, the first two being common in the images of other gods Four varieties of the sthanaka (standing) attitude Alidha and pratyalidha poses The Visnu-Asanas (sitting pastures), varieties mentioned in texts, representations in art Asana in the sense of a pedestal: pitha, varieties of it Sayana-murtis, ideology the Anantasayanamurti of Visnu Nrtyamurtis Textual account of various types of handposes, and different dances modes Flying pose and the Vidyadharas Representation of clouds in early and mediaeval art of India Ornaments in the Hindu images: various types of headgear Varieties of ear-ornaments Neck-ornaments, yajnopavita, channavira etc., Drapery of the Hindu icons Other characteristic traits of the images: Sirascakra and prabhavali Pitha or pedestals Various kinds of objects in the hands of different images Ideology underlying the custom of placing them in the hands of the divinities Chapter VIII: Canons of Iconometry Rules of proportions in the making of images: their usefulness Not peculiar to the Indian artists alone, but adopted by many ancient nations Anthropomorphism in Indian images Astatala and navatala images Significance of some technical terms connected with the measurements of images Angula and tala as characterized by different texts Tala not mentioned in the Brhatsamhita or in its commentary by Utpala Hadaway's explanation of tala Reference to Dravida mana by Nagnajit Measurement of the length of the 'image face' as referred to in various texts Comparison between the Indian canons of proportion and those used by the Egyptians and the Greeks Rules of proportion followed by western artists in the representation of human figures Comparison between the ideal theory and the actual practice Observations of Smith and Hadaway Chapter IX: Cult Icons-Vyantara Devatas Change introduced in the religions outlook of the Indians by the element of Bhakti rise to importance of a class of deities described in some texts as Vyantara Devatas Yaksas in early Indians literature Yaksa shrines in Buddhist, Jaina, epic and Puranic texts Textual descriptions of Yaksa images Some early Yaksa images Yaksa Candramukha at Amaravati Yaksas, named and unnamed at Bharhut Nagas and Naginis in early Indian literature Textual descriptions of the Naga and Nagini types of images Elapatra and Cakravaka Nagarajas at Bharhut Naga images from the Mathura region Naga and Nagini figures of the Gupta and post-Gupta periods, as accessories to the higher cult deities Or, as principal deities Gandharvas, Kinnaras and Apsarasas in literature Their iconographic types in Indian art Ganapati, an iconic type derived from the Yaksa and Naga types, the cult of the Ganapatyas Textual descriptions of different types of Ganapati images Some early and mediaeval images of Ganapati Karttikeya and his various aspects in early Indian literature Epigraphic references to his worship Textual descriptions of Shanda-Karttikeya images Some Gupta and post-Gupta images of Karttikeya Kabandhas and Kumbhandas in literature and art Iconographic types of Devatas and Yaksinis Sri-Laksmi in literature Textual descriptions of the various types of Laksmi images Representation of Sri-Laksmi in early and mediaeval art of India Sarasvati in mythological and iconographic texts Proto-Sarasvati at Bharhut and Khiching Some early and mediaeval Sarasvati reliefs Worship and iconography of some folk goddesses of ancient and mediaeval India - Jara, Hariti, Jyestha and others Chapter X: Cult Icons-Vishnu and Surya
VisnuAditya Visnu in Vedic texts Puranic Visnu, a composite god Vasudeva and his five-fold forms The Pancaratra ideology, the Vyuha tenet The Vibhava doctrine Different lists of Avataras in different texts The Pancaratrins part in the spread of the practice of image worship Sectarian exclusiveness in later Vaisnavism The Brhatsamhita description if Visnu image The Vaikhanasagama characterisation of the Dhruvaberas of Visnu An Abhicarikasthanakamurti of Visnu from Bengal Some varieties of the Asanamurtis of the god Varieties of Sayanamurtis of Visnu Visnu Caturmurti (Caturvyuha), a concept peculiar to the Pancaratrina illustrated by some four faced Visnu images of parts of Northern India, mostly Kashmir, -the ideology behind them explained in the Visnudharmottara Caturvimsatimurtis of Visnu, the mode of distinguishing one from the other Images illustrating some of the ten incarnations of Visnu: Matsya, Kurma, Varaha Narasimha Vamana Three Ramas, Bhargava Rama (Parasurama), Raghava Rama (Rama Dasarathi) and Balarama Buddha Kalkin Visvarupa, Karivarada and Mandhata incarnations of Visnu SuryaSurya and his various aspects in the Vedic texts Worship of the Sun god in the post-Vedic age Reorientated sun-cult of Northern India in the early centuries of the Christian era and afterwards Aniconic representation of Surya in coins of the pre-Christian period Some early reliefs of the god from the Western, Northern and Eastern parts of India Some Surya figures from Gandhara and Mathura A few Surya images from Bengal, their principal traits Textual descriptions of the Surya image The prototype of the north Indian sun icon Two categories of mediaeval Surya reliefs of Eastern India Images of Surya from other parts of India Dvadasadityas Ravanta, the son of Surya, the Ghatnagar Revanta relief Navagrahas Kankandighi Navagraha relief Navagraha Cakra from Khiching Chapter XI: Cult Icons - Siva and Sakti SivaSiva's acts and aspects His Vedic counterpart-Rudra Siva ('auspicious') not used at first as the proper name of a god The word used as such in later Vedic literature Rudra as a Supreme god and his eight names Emergence of the cult of Rudra Siva - evidence of Panini and Patanjali Of the annalists of Alexander's invasions and of the Mahamayuri The Siva bhagavatas, the same as Pasupatas, Lakulisa-the systematiser of the Pasupata School Saiva Schools of the ghora form Moderate schools of Saivism: Agamanta Saivas Kashmir Saivism Tamil Sivabhaktas and the Virasaivas Sivalinga its real nature Gudimallam and other realistic Sivalingas Classifications of canventionalised Sivalingas Manusa lingas and its different varieties Mukhalingas Lingodbhavamurti of Siva Siva in his human forms: classifications under two broad heads, ugra and saumya, - different varieties included in each Non-mythological groups of Saiva images:- of a peaceful character Daksinamurtis of Siva Nrtyamurtis of Siva The so-called Trimurti of Elephanta, its real character Siva images illustrating tenets of the Agamanta or Suddha-Saiva School Images of Lakulisa 'Non-mythological' groups of Saiva images: of the ugra, variety Saiva images illustrating stories: of a peaceful character, -Anugrahamurtis of Siva Kalyana-sundara or Vaivahika-murtis Saiva images illustrating the stories associated with his specific acts of destruction: Gajasura-samharamurti Tripurantaka and Kalari-murtis Kamadahana and Sarabhesa-murtis SaktiThe worship of the female principle: its beginnings Goddesses in early Vedic texts In the later Vedic texts Sakti worship in the epic literature Markandeyapurana characterisation of the cult-goddess Tantricism and its beginnings Mahisasuramardini icons Durga Simhavahini Devi with godhika Ekanamsa Matrkas in inscriptions and texts Sapta Matrka and Tri Matrka reliefs Separate images of the Sapta Matrkas Tripura-Bhairavi (Mahamaya) image from Kagaji-para (Dacca) Chapter XII: Miscellaneous and Syncretistic Icons Miscellaneous IconsBrahma, the first member of the orthodox Brahmanical triad: the beginnings of the concept Development of the god-concept in the epic and Puranic period Not a success as a cult god Some early and late mediaeval Brahma shrines Textual descriptions of the Brahma image Some images of the god, mostly of a subsidiary character Astadikpalas: Concept about the Dikpalas or Lokapalas very old, different lists in different texts Indra worship and Indra image Agni in iconographic texts and art Yama Nirrti Varuna Vayu Kubera Isana Garuda: Concept of the sunbird, mythology about Garuda Development of the Garuda motif in early Indian art Textual descriptions and some extant images Nandin: Siva's bull mount, development of the concept, his early anthropomorphisation Textual descriptions Ayudhapurusas: Personified attributes and weapons Sudarsana cakra of Visnu Syncretistic IconsImages illustrative of sectarian rivalry Attempts at rapprochement between rival creeds Factors contributing to the growth of this feeling, - Smarta Pancayatana puja Mental attitude of the early foreign immigrants into India Varieties of images illustrating this syncretistic tendency: Pancayatana Sivalinga and miniature shrines Kaveripakkam stone plaque Hari-Hara-murti Hari-Hara-Surya-Buddha image Siva-Lokesvara Surya, -Lokesvara Surya-Narayana Surya-Siva or Marttanda-Bhairava Brahma-Surya Brahma-Visnu-Siva-Surya Ardhanarisvara or Siva-Sakti Visnu-Lokesvara Inter-relation between Brahmanical Hindu Iconography, -and Buddhist iconography And Jaina iconography Appendices Appendix A: (a) Installation of Images (b) Jirnod-dhara (c) The ideology behind Hindu Images (d) Puranic Deities in Vedic Texts Appendix B: Part I Brhatsamhita, with English Translations and Notes Part II Pratimamanala; sanam with English Translations and Notes Part III Tables of Measurement according to Dasatala Appendix C: Details of Measurement of some Mediaeval Images Select Bibliography General Index Errata Plates
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